Gallery Content  (click image to access 3D stills images, or return to homepage to access video and stills)




The love of the railroad, as a history maker and iconic mode of transport that led the expansion westward in America, has promoted restoration of many old locomotives and rail-lines into a rail-fans paradise.  Modelers, too, focus on the re-creation of history in motion.  3D is THE way to capture the essence of both real of model railroads.  The age of steam features engines that are organic beasts with vapors swirling and smoke rising in turbulent plumes, as steam-punk valves, gears, and tie-rods push the monsters forward.  Ideal subjects for the 3D video camera! 


Microscope  Panographs 


These are slowly evolving  investigations into making large-format prints from optical microscopy.  A microscope with a home-built motorized XY stage is used to automatically capture an array of highly resolved (high numerical-aperture) images that can be stitched into a 'gigapixel' panorama for printing.  Image stacking in Z is used as required to enhance the depth of field for thick specimens.  Optical slicing can also be employed to make single-pass synthetic stereoscopic images.  In addition, HD videos are made when interesting time-evolving events arise, as in thin film fluid dynamics or crystal growth.  

High Speed


3D images of short-time events are photographed with short duration flash guns (down to about 500 nanoseconds) and precise timing.   Subjects range from liquid drop collisions to ballistics (bullets passing through various objects).  For the latter, both subsonic velocities (with air-rifles, up to 50 caliber) as well as supersonic speeds (with .44 magnum and other "launch devices") have been used. (2005-2011)



Fractal flames, strange attractors, and Mandelboxes are stunning in 3D as both stills and as "morphing" videos made by slowly varying the parameters in the iterative formulae used to calculate the fractals.  Strange attractors were discovered by Edward Lorenz way back in 1963, and fractals were defined by Benoit Mandelbrot in 1971.  But neither have been routinely constructed and observed in 3D until recently.  We were inspired to generate several videos of these objects, including 3D "Mandelbulbs" and related objects recently described by Daniel White, Paul Nylander, and others.  (2007 - 2013)

White Water


Flying water is a fantastic subject for 3D photography.  Colorado has great mountain runoffs, and is home to a number of kayak festivals and competitions each spring.  Modest telephoto imaging with a high shutter speed (and good positioning) is key to capturing the moment.  3D video, especially stop action and slow motion, is useful to decipher the acrobatic moves of professional rodeo kayakers. (2007, 2010)

N. & S.




From 1971 to 1995, Prof. Hart was an avid wildlife photographer (in 2D).   He also did some wildlife photography using direct dual-camera 3D acquisition.  Some of his early N. American 2D images have been made into stereos by a process called 2D-to-3D conversion wherein a single flat picture has its elements judiciously shifted left or right and layered into a second photograph to give a stereo pair.  When pixels are shifted, the hole created must be filled in with compatible data (which doesn't really exist, and must be 'manufactured' or synthesized in some way such as cloning). The Ecuador images (Galapagos) shown here are all native stereoscopic (V3 twincam). 

Micro - Bio


3D microscopy of biological and botanical objects is carried out using the image stacking depth-of-field enhancement technique, and other methodologies.   In image stacking, a series of "slices" at different focal planes are combined into a single high-resolution all-in-focus pictures.  A left and a right image can be made separately after tilting the stage, or occasionally a good stereo image can be extracted from a single image stack in what is called a 'synthetic stereo'.  (2004)



3D microscopy of chemical mixtures, melted by heating and then allowed to solidify in a thin layer under a microscope, provide unusual and incredibly beautiful subjects for stereoscopy.  The crystals are observed with polarized light, in a manner that produces very colorful imagery.  This procedure dates back to Isaac Newton.  The 3D effect is obtained by image stacking (see Micro-Bio, above), or by employing a method where narrow wavelength illuminations are used to give estimates of the amount of optical rotation imparted by, and the angle of, the birefringent material (which leads to a measure of it's thickness).  (1984-88, 2000-2004, 2014+)



In 2D - to - 3D conversions of Hubble space telescope imagery it is imagined how the universe might appear to a wide-eyed observer. Physical-chemical models, or just pure artistic whimsy, are used to make the stereo views.  Morphing the objects provides a 3D motion-effect for video clips.  The images presented under "Cosmos" on the homepage are part of a larger film about the cosmos which is available from Kallistimedia.  (2007-2009, 2011)



Primarily landscape 3D's along the Rockies, from Canada to New Mexico, with a little mountain wildlife and a couple of climbing activities thrown in.  (2000-2004)



Prof. Hart's original interest in 3D arose in 1999 when he started hiking in canyons of the American southwest (Arizona, Utah, Colorado).  The narrow diverging passageways and incredible colors seemed ideal subjects for stereo photography.  After initial efforts in walk-in canyons, he then explored more technical venues involving roped descents, pack-rafts, and the like, in various locations world-wide.  His favorite canyons have big water-flows, like the ones in Spain and on Reunion Island.  (1999 - 2008)



Always a favorite amongst 3D photographers, macro photography of flowers in stereo illustrates nature's intricacies and inner beauty.  Both beam-splitter macros and enhanced depth-of-field (focus stacked) high-magnification 2-view photography of internal flower structures are shown.  (2007)  New work with image stacking microscopy is on-going in 2018-2019+.



It is possible to use two digital single lens reflex cameras, or even consumer digicams, to make very-high-quality 3D videos of slowly moving phenomena.  The frame rates are typically low;1 frame per second or longer.  When played back at normal speed (24 or 30fps) the action is dramatically sped up.  This allows the sped-up observation of slow phenomena, like clouds in motion, or to watch normal human activities progress at a such a rate that the may appear humorous. (2006-2008)

Projects and



Every once in a while some unusual event happens that turns out to be pretty neat for 3D photography.  Examples include the Kinetic Challenge races that used to happen at the Boulder Reservoir, and open-swim days for dogs at Scott Carpenter pool.  (2002+).  There is always a project happening, of one form or other (like stereo photography).  In 2011-2012 it was electric-assist biking and triking.  A while back (starting in 1995, and lasting a few years) it was outdoor model railroading. 

African Wildlife


This part of the gallery contains a large number of  2D-to-3D conversions (by  of John's wildlife photographs taken during do-it-yourself camping safaris to Kenya, ZImbabwe, Botswana, Namibia and South Africa done primarily in the 1970's and 80'.  Along with the 3D images, there is a 2D book with many stories about adventures in the African bush featuring close encounters of the wild kind.  Access the book by clicking here.  (added in Jan. 2016)